The sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) more common in children is the sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) and the most common cause is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Adenotonsillectomy is the treatment of choice for SAHS in children.
Getting the proper growth and development as well as prevent or reverse the morbidity associated to the sleep-disordered breathing are the main targets of treatment. Medical and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment should be considered in a diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary strategy, in which may be needed more than one treatment option. Dietary treatment in children with SDB and obesity is always recommended.
Regarding the treatment with CPAP or non invasive ventilation (NIV) are the second choice of treatment of SAHS in children, its main indication is in SDB associated with malformation syndromes or neuromuscular diseases.
It is necessary to emphasize the key role that both, polygraphy as polysomnography and other monitoring options plays in the detection of residual sleep apnea and the suitable checking of the disappearance of respiratory events during sleep.
(Rev Esp Ortod. 2012;42(3):192-197)