Dental esthetics is not only one of the most frequent reasons for orthodontic treatment, it is also the main criterion used by the patient to evaluate the results of such treatment. This lead us to consider if what the patient perceives as beautiful is the same as what the dental professional and the dental specialist understood as such. In January 2014, following the PRISMA statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses), a systematic review was conducted in order to determine if discrepancies, either rational or emotional, in the perception of dental aesthetics between these three groups has been referred to in the literature. An electronic and manual research was performed in the major databases: PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs, Embase, EMI and SciELO, and those articles published in English or Spanish in which participants performed an evaluation or choice of frontal images were selected. A total of 416 articles were obtained. After reading the title, the sample was reduced to 71 items, 53 of which were discarded after applying the inclusion-exclusion criteria and five because they were duplications. A total of 38 articles (38 cross-sectional studies) were analyzed. We conclude that rational perception differs between laypeople and dental professionals, but there is not enough evidence in the literature to support that this also happens with emotional perception.
(Rev Esp Ortod. 2014;44(2):105-110)