Introduction: Active unilateral condylar hyperplasia (AUCH) is a complex disease that causes severe alterations in the function and facial aesthetics. Many protocol treatments have been proposed such as high condylectomy, with or without orthognathic surgery. In this study we wanted to know if a proportional condylectomy by itself could solve the facial, occlusal, and skeletal alterations caused by condylar hyperplasia and avoid possible complimentary orthognathic surgery. Method: Two kinds of studies were done: (i) measurement of the facial, occlusal and skeletal changes in patients with AUCH, who only had a proportional condylectomy; and (ii) a comparison of high condylectomy with the proportional one to determine if there is a secondary need for orthognathic surgery. Results: 16 patients were included in the first study; in nine of them a perfect center of the chin was achieved, seven leveled the lip’s bicommissural plane, and only two also required orthognathic surgery. The second study included 49 patients, average age 19.7 ± 3.72 years; most of them were women (32, 65.3%). Of the 38 patients who had proportional condylectomy, only six (15,8%) required secondary orthognathic surgery. On the other hand, of the 11 patients who had a high condylectomy, 10 (90.9%) required secondary orthognathic surgery. Conclusion: Early proportional condylectomy as a sole etiological treatment is a rational alternative of treatment in cases of AUCH.
(Rev Esp Ortod. 2016;46(4):146-153)